Tuesday, December 4, 2012

Lab 13: Asterales and Monocots

Family: Campanulaceae
Key features: Milky sap.  Flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic.  Secondary pollen presentation.  Ovary half inferior.

 Lobelia (left) and Campanula (right)



Family: Asteraceae
Key features: flowers densely aggregated into indeterminate heads that are surrounded by an involucre (phyllaries), 3 types of flowers: ray, disk and ligulate, secondary pollen presentation.

 Cynara scolymus

 Youngia japonica

 Taraxacum officinale

 Erigeron quercifolius
 Ampelaster caroliniana

 Symphyotrichium dumosum

 Symphiotrichum elliottii

 Heterotheca subaxillaris

 Chrysopsis scabrella

 Baccharis halimifolia

 Solidago fistulosa

 Helianthus debilis

 Bidens alba

 Sphagneticola trilobata

 Senecio rowleyanus

 Kleinia saginata

 Emilia sonchifolia

 Emilia fosbergii

Carphephorus corymbosus

Eupatorium capillifolium

Eupatorium compositifolium

Family: Araceae
Key features: grooved raphide crystals, irritating chemicals, leaves alternate, spiral, blade usually well developed, spath + spadix, berry fruits

Amorphophallus titanum

 Spathicarpa arifolia

Alocasia rugosa

Anthurium spp.

Colocasia esculenta (Taro)

Wolffia, Lemna

Pistia stratoides (Water lettuce)

Family: Liliaceae
Key features: capsule, non-black seeds, spotted tepals, nectar produced by tepals, most with bulb, 5n endosperm

Lilium sp.

Tricyrtis sp.

Family: Smilacaceae
Key features: pair of tendrils at base of leaf, berry fruit, vine

Smilax auriculata

Smilax glauca

Family: Arecaceae - Palmae
Key features: Trees (usually), leaves pinnate or palmately compound often with distinct petioles.  Inflorescences large, fruits are drupes.
Sabal etonia

Sabal palmetto

Serenoa repens
Phoenix dactylifera

Phoenix reclinata

Butia capitata

 Coccothrinax spp.

 Cocos nucifera

Salacca wallichiana

Family: Orchidaceae
Key features: Often epiphytes and having pseudobulbs (succulent stems for water and carbohydrate storage).  Flowers with 3 sepals and 3 petals (one of those petals highly modified into a "lip").  The androecium and gynoecium are fused to form a "column."  Fruit is a capsule.

Habenaria repens

Ludisia discolor
Vanilla planifolia

Dendrobium hybrid

Cattleya (hybrid)

Brassavola nodosa

Spathoglottis sp.

Family: Iridaceae
Key features: Equitant vegetative habit, with rhizomes.  3sepals, 3 petals, 3 stamens, and 3 (often petaloid) styles.


Family: Bromeliaceae
Key features: Epiphytes, covered in scales and/or forming "tanks."  Flowers usually showy.
Billbergia nutans

 Neoregelia hybrid

Cryptanthus microglazioi

Tillandsia vernicosa

Tillandsia bartramii

Tillandsia usneoides

Tillandsia recurvata

Family: Poaceae
Key features: Stems are round.  Leaves are distichous, with an open sheath, and a "ligule." Spikelets with glumes.  Florets with a palea and lemma.  Fruit is a caryopsis.

Florida's only native bamboo

Arundinaria gigantea

Triticum aestivale (wheat)

Hordeum vulgaris (barley)

Aristida stricta

Arundo donax

Chasmanthium latifolium

Chloris (Eustachys) petraea

Chloris (Eustachys) glauca

Dactylotenium aegytium

Eragrostis spectabilis

Dicanthelium commutatum

Dichanthelium aciculare

Urochloa maxima

Paspalum notatum

Setaria magna

Sacchrum officinale

Andropogon ternarius

Zea mays subsp. mays (corn) & Zea mays subsp. mexicana (teosinte)

Family Cyperaceae
Key features:  Stems often with 3 sharp edges (triangular).  Leaves 3-ranked and with a closed sheath (almost never with a ligule).  Spikelet subtended by a single bract.  Fruit is an achene.
Cyperus alternifolius

Cyperus virens

Cyperus surinamensis

Cyperus sp.

Cyperus croceus

Cladium jamaicense

Carex tribuloides
Family: Juncaceae
Key features: Stems roundLeaves 3-ranked (usually very difficult to see though) and with an open sheath.  No spikelets (flowers are in panicles, usually).  Fruit is a capsule.

Juncus effusus

Family: Zingiberaceae
Key features:  Leaves distichous with a strong midrib and secondary veins that are strongly parallel and coming off the midvein at an angle (~30 degrees).  Vegetative parts often highly fragrant.  Flowers showy.